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Angelfish (pterophyllum Scalare) Isolated On White Background


Dutch Name: sunfish
Scientific name: Pterophyllum scalare
Origin: South America
Age: 8 years on average
Height: about 15 – 20 cm
Legislation: None
Difficulty: Medium to difficult
Group: group animals – minimum group of 5
Diet: Omnivorous

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The angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) is a beautiful, silvery fish with distinctive wing-like fins that resemble a moon. This elegant aquarium fish is native to South America, where they live in groups in the Amazon and surrounding waters. Measuring around 15 to 20 inches (5 to 6 cm) in length, they are known for their calm and peaceful nature, making them a good companion for other peace-loving fish species. They are social animals and are often kept in groups of at least XNUMX to XNUMX individuals. During the breeding season, they display unique brood care behaviors, with both parents involved in protecting and caring for their eggs and young. Creating a suitable environment for an angelfish in an aquarium is essential to ensure their well-being and health.

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Water values

The water parameters for keeping angelfish in an aquarium are very important to ensure their health and well-being. Here are some important water parameters:

  1. Temperature: The ideal water temperature for angelfish is usually between 24°C and 28°C. Make sure the temperature is stable, as sudden changes in temperature can be stressful for the fish.
  2. pH value: The pH value of the water should preferably be between 6,0 and 7,5. Angelfish thrive in slightly acidic to neutral water.
  3. Hardness: The total hardness (GH) of the water should preferably be between 4 and 8 dH, while the carbonate hardness (KH) should be between 1 and 5 dH.
  4. Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate: Make sure the aquarium is properly cycled and that water levels for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate are maintained at safe levels. Ammonia and nitrite should be zero, and nitrate should be kept low (e.g. below 20 ppm).
  5. Water Changes: Regular water changes are essential to remove accumulated waste and maintain water quality. A weekly water change of about 20% is often recommended.

Monitoring these water parameters and maintaining a clean and stable aquarium environment are crucial to the health and well-being of angelfish. Remember to always use caution when introducing new fish to the aquarium and make sure they acclimate well to the water conditions.

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Angelfish are omnivores, meaning they have a varied diet that includes both plant and animal foods. In their natural environment, they feed on a variety of food sources, such as insects, larvae, small invertebrates, algae, and plant matter. In captivity, angelfish can be well fed with a balanced diet that includes high-quality flake food, choose special fish food for angelfish in flake form, make sure the food is suitable for both carnivorous and herbivorous species. Live, frozen or freeze-dried foods such as mosquito larvae, water fleas, brine shrimp and daphnia are excellent sources of protein for angelfish. In addition, you can give vegetable food, such as spirulina flakes or vegetables such as boiled peas, spinach or zucchini. Some angelfish also enjoy nibbling algae on aquarium decorations. Only feed angelfish as much food as they can eat in a few minutes to avoid overfeeding and excess food in the aquarium, which can degrade water quality. Regular meals and a balanced diet will contribute to their well-being and health.

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Interior nursery

When setting up an aquarium for angelfish, it is important to create an environment that resembles their natural habitat in South America. Here are some general tips for setting up the aquarium and place a lot of dense vegetation in the aquarium. Angelfish like hiding places and shelter, so choose plants such as Amazon Swordplant, Vallisneria, and Anubias. Use a soft, fine substrate such as sand or fine gravel, as angelfish like to burrow into the substrate. Add wood, rocks and decorations to create hiding places. Angelfish feel safe in sheltered environments. Consider the size of the aquarium. Angelfish need space to swim freely. Provide a well-filtered aquarium and maintain stable water values ​​(temperature, pH, GH, KH) to prevent stress for the fish. By setting up an aquarium that meets the needs of angelfish, you create a healthy and stimulating environment for these beautiful fish to grow up in.

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Angelfish reproduction involves an interesting brood care behavior in which both parents play an important role. Here is an overview of the reproductive process of angelfish:

  1. Pairing: Angelfish form pairs as part of the breeding ritual. These pairs can form through random interactions or mate choice.
  2. Egg Deposition: The female usually chooses a flat surface, such as a plant leaf or other solid surface, on which to deposit her eggs. She can produce several hundred eggs per clutch, depending on her size and age.
  3. Fertilization: After the female deposits the eggs, the male emerges to spread his sperm on the eggs, leading to the fertilization of the eggs.
  4. Brood care: Both male and female actively participate in brood care. They protect and guard the eggs from potential predators and keep them clean by venting them with their fins.
  5. Incubating the Eggs: Incubation care continues until the eggs hatch, usually within 2 to 4 days of spawning, depending on water temperature.
  6. Care for the fry: Once the eggs hatch, the fry are called "larvae." They remain attached to the surface for some time, feeding on a special slimy food pouch given to them by their parents. As the young grow and become more independent, the parents will still protect and guide them.

It is essential to create the right environment in the aquarium for the incubation process and brood care. This includes adequate hiding places, such as dense vegetation, where the eggs can be deposited and where the young can shelter. It can also be helpful to separate the parents from other fish to prevent aggression from other aquarium inhabitants and to increase the chances of the fry surviving.

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